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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR 3 SETS VASA 18V32 HEAVY FUEL GENERATING SETS

19 June 2012 Tuesday



TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FOR
3 SETS VASA 18V32
HEAVY FUEL GENERATING SETS

Page 2 (38)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................3
A.0.1 TYPE OF THE PLANT ...............................................................................................3
A.0.2 PLANT MAIN DATA AND CONDITIONS ...............................................................4
A.0.3 SPECIAL FEATURES .................................................................................................5
A.0.4 CODES AND STANDARDS.......................................................................................5
A.1 GENERATING SET.................................................................................................................6
A.1.1 DIESEL ENGINE.........................................................................................................6
A.1.2 GENERATOR.............................................................................................................15
A.1.3 COMMON BASE FRAME........................................................................................17
A.1.4 ELASTIC MOUNTING.............................................................................................17
A.1.5 COUPLING................................................................................................................17
A.1.6 FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS ....................................................................................17
A.2 MECHANICAL AUXILIARY SYSTEM.............................................................................18
A.2.1 FUEL SYSTEM .........................................................................................................18
A.2.2 LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM.................................................................................20
A.2.3 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM .................................................................................21
A.2.4 COOLING SYSTEM.................................................................................................22
A.2.5 CHARGE AIR SYSTEM...........................................................................................24
A.2.6 EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM........................................................................................24
A.3 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.......................................................................................................25
A.3.1 MAIN SWITCHGEAR ..............................................................................................25
A.3.2 STATION SERVICE SYSTEM..................................................................................27
A.3.3 DC SYSTEM..............................................................................................................28
A.4 AUTOMATION, MONITORING AND SUPERVISION...................................................29
A.4.1 CONTROL AND AUTOMATION SYSTEM ...........................................................29
A.5 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . . … … … 3 4
A5.1 STEAM GENERATION… … … … … . . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …. … ….34
A.6 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …37
A6.1 SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (De-NOx) SYSTEM … … … … … . … … …37
A.7 TOOLS.....................................................................................................................................38
Page 3 (38)
A.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Design and construction
The essence of the design is simplicity and reliability Repairs and normal maintenance may
be performed by means of conventional tools completed with special tools included in this
scope of supply.
The equipment is designed to prevent accidental contract with live or tensional parts and to
minimize ingress of dust and dirt.
Quality control, test and inspection procedures and designed to ensure product quality with
special attention paid to tests of the diesel engine and inspection of the final installation.
Main parts with devices like valves, pumps etc. are marked with engraved name plates
indicating its item code.
English is used in all documents, correspondence and name plates.
A.0.1 TYPE OF THE PLANT
The proposed stationary power plant will be designed for base load application and is
intended for electricity production in parallel operation with public supply system.
Waste heat from the prime movers are utilized to produce thermal energy in the form of
steam.
The power plant will be designed for utilizing Heavy Fuel Oil as the main fuel with Light
Fuel Oil as standby fuel.
Page 4 (38)
A.0.2 PLANT MAIN DATA AND CONDITIONS
The power plant is equipped with three (3) Diesel Generating set(s) of the type Wartsila
Vasa 18V32, as prime mover.
Plant Gross Performance
Electrical production 18900 kWe
23625 kVA, power factor 0.8
Plant Ratings
Voltage 6.9 kV
Frequency 60 Hz
Auxiliary voltage 440 V AC, 3phase, 4 wire
110 V DC
Ambient Conditions
The equipment will be designed and constructed for operation at the extreme site
conditions of:
Ambient temperature, max. 39 oC
Ambient temperature, min. 10 oC
Engine room air temperature, max. 10 oC above ambient temperature
Engine room air temperature, min. 0 oC
Altitude, max. 100 m a.s.l.
Water temperature to charge
air cooler, max. 38 oC
Wet bulb temperature, max. 28 oC
At extreme site temperature mentioned above, the plant gross electrical production will be:
18900 kWe. The DG-set output is calculated according to the ISO 3046-1986(E) derating
standards.
Tolerances according to ISO 3046-1986(E).
Page 5 (38)
A.0.3 SPECIAL FEATURES
Vibration And Noise Control
Transmission of vibration and structure borne noise is minimized by having the DG set
flexibly mounted on to the foundation, to the building as well as pipes and steel structures.
Torsional vibration in the engine-generator shaft system is minimized by means of a
flexible coupling between the engine and generator.
Start Up And Loading
Fast start up and loading of generating set is possible, provided that the engine is preheated
and prelubricated.
Operation And Maintenance Support
The Operation and Maintenance Manuals are tailor made for each project and covers the
whole plant, thus enabling the correct operation and maintenance of the plant throughout
its life time.
The World wide Service organization and the Customer Support Team will assist the
customer to organize the plant day-to-day operation and to set-up optimum reporting
follow-up, incentives, etc. schemes, thus laying the foundation for long term successful
operation of the plant.
A.0.4 CODES AND STANDARDS
The design and manufacturing of the plant are made according to following codes and
standards:
Mechanical system relevant ISO and DIN standards
Electrical system IEC
Page 6 (38)
A.1 GENERATING SET
A.1.1 DIESEL ENGINE
3 Diesel engines Wartsila Vasa 18V32
The engine is four stroke, direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled design.
Configuration Vee form
Number of cylinders 18
Cylinder bore 320 mm
Stroke 350 mm
Speed 720 rpm
Mean piston speed 8.4 m/s
Compression ration 13.8:1
Mean effective pressure 21.3 bar
Swept volume per cylinder 28.15 dm3
Number of valves 2 inlet valves
2 outlet valves
Direction of rotation faced towards flywheel Clockwise
Engine shaft output 6660 kWm
Engine shaft output corresponds to 100% load of the engine at ISO 3046/I-1986(E)
conditions. The fuel rack position is blocked at 100% load.
The diesel engine is designed for continuous heavy fuel duty and can be started and
stopped on heavy fuel oil provided that the fuel is heated to operating temperature.
Fuel consumption according to ISO 3046 standards and tolerance of ± 5% without engine
driven pumps and with fuel net calorific value of 42,700 kJ/kg:
100% load 187 g/kWh
85% load 185 g/kWh
Lube oil consumption 0/8 ± 0.3 g/kWh calculated at 100% load.
NOTE: Net consumption, not including leakage and treatment losses.
Page 7 (38)
SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE
Fuel Oil System
The Wartsila Vasa 32 engine is designed for continuous operation on heavy fuel oil (HFO)
as well as light fuel oil (LFO). A preheated engine can be started directly on HFO
provided that the external fuel system has the correct temperature and pressure. The
engine can also be stopped on HFO although the external system has to stay in operation
i.e. fuel must be circulated through the stopped engine continuously for heating purposes.
The internal fuel system comprises the following equipment:
- Low pressure pipes make of steel
- High pressure pipes, double wall with common leak alarm
- Injection pumps, individual for each cylinder
- Fuel injector in each cylinder
Lubricating Oil System
The lubricating oil system is lubricating the bearings and the cylinder liners in the engine.
Furthermore, the lube oil is also cooling the piston tops. The Wartsila Vasa 32 engines
have a wet sump oil system.
The internal lubricating oil system comprises the following equipment:
- Pipes made of steel
- Oil sump of wet type
- Engine driven main lube oil pump with pressure regulating valve
- Two by-pass centrifugal filter
- Start up / running in filters
- Non-return valves in oil supply pipes
Page 8 (38)
Starting Air System
All Wartsila Vasa 32 engines are started by means of compressed air with a nominal
pressure of 30 bars. The start is performed by direct injection of air into the cylinders
through the starting air valves in the cylinder heads. The V-engines are provided with
starting air valves for cylinders in the A-bank only. The master starting air valve can be
operated both manually and electrically.
The compressed air system for operation of the starting fuel limier and the
electropneumatic overspeed trip have their own connections to the external starting air
system.
The internal starting air system comprised the following equipment:
- Pipes made of steel
- Starting air master valve
- Valve for electropneumatic overspeed trip
- Solenoid valve for fuel limiter
- Start blocking valve to prevent starting when turning gear is engaged
- Starting air distributor
- Starting air valves in each cylinder head (only A-bank cylinders in V-engines)
- Fuel limiter
- Air container for emergency stop system
- Pneumatic stop cylinder at each injection pump
- Booster for speed governor
- Flame arrestors
- Air filter for control air
Cooling Water System
The engine’s cooling system (primary circuit) is divided into two circuits, the high
temperature circuit (HT) and low temperature circuit (LT). The HT-circuit is cooling the
cylinders, the turbocharger(s) and in engines equipped with split charge air coolers, also the
first stage of the charge air. The LT-circuit is cooling the second stage of the charge air
and the lube oil circuit through lube oil heat exchanger.
The internal cooling water system comprises the following equipment:
- Pies made of steel
- Engine driven pump for LT cooling circuit
- Engine driven pump for HT cooling circuit
- Non-return valves after circulating pumps
Page 9 (38)
Combustion Air System
The compressor side of the turbocharger(s) is blowing air into the cylinders via the cooler
for the combustion process. The engine is equipped with one turbocharger per cylinder
bank. The turbocharger is of axial turbine type, facilitating exhaust gas energy to make
combustion.
For cleaning the compressor a washing system is included. The washing is carried out
during operation at regular intervals by means of fresh water injection.
The internal combustion air system comprises the following equipment:
- Compressor on the turbocharger
- LT-charge air cooler
- Cleaning device for the compressor
Exhaust Gas System
The engine exhaust gas pipes are fully protected by an insulation box. Metal bellows are
fitted in the pipe system as well as between the turbocharger and the exhaust discharge pipe
system. The pipes are fixed by a bracket, but they are free to move axially.
The internal exhaust gas system comprises the following equipment:
- Exhaust gas pipes with bellows
- Flexibly mounted insulation box
- Turbine on the turbocharger
- Turbine washing system
Speed Regulating System
Speed control of the engine is provided by using an electronic governor and a hydraulic
actuator mounted on the engine. Speed setting switches are mounted in the control panel.
Page 10 (38)
Control System
The engine is provided with the following control and protection equipment.
- Pneumatic starting fuel limiter
- Electro-pneumatic overspeed device for automatic stop of the engine, operating
independently of the speed governor
- Mechanical overspeed device for automatic stop of the engine, operating
independently of the speed governor
- Speed measuring system, including magnetic pick-up for engine speed and
turbocharger speed
Thermometers
Thermometers with protecting wells are fitted on the engine for reading following
temperatures:
- Fuel oil before the engine
- HT-water before engine
- HT-water after turbocharger
- HT-water after engine
- LT-water before the charge air cooler
- LT-water after charge air cooler
- Charge air in the air receiver
- Exhaust gas after each cylinder
Page 11 (38)
Flexible mounted instrument panel on the engine including
- Tachometer with selector switch for engine or turbocharger speed
- Running hour counter
- Manometer with damper and check valve for
» Fuel oil before engine
» Lube — oil before main bearings
» HT-water before engine
» LT-water before engine
» Charge air in the air receiver
» Starting air
Sensors for Alarm and Monitoring
One set of sensors fitted on the engine to be connected to an alarm and monitoring unit in
the control board specified in section A4.6.
Other Included Items
- Flywheel with fixing bolts
- Electrical motor driven turning device
- Counter flanges for pipe connection
- Crankcase safety valves with flame trap
- Indicator valves in the cylinder heads
- Safety valves in cylinder head
- Terminal box for electric cables
- The engine has one coat of priming paint and one coat of finishing paint
Technical data for pumps, built on the engine
HT-water circulation pump 210 m3/h 2.5 bar + static
LT-water circulation pump 210 m3/h 2.5 bar + static
Lubricating oil pump 123 m3/h 5.0 bar
Page 12 (38)
EXTREME LIMITS FOR OPERATION MEDIA
The diesel engines are designed and developed for continuous operation on operation
media as described below. Note, that those are extreme limits for Wartsila Diesel engines.
More detailed information about actually used operation media can be found under each
system description.
LIGHT FUEL OIL (LFO)
Viscosity, min (cSt at 40 oC) 2.8
Viscosity, max. (cSt at 40 oC) 14.0
Density, max. (at 15oC) (g/ml) 0.92
Conradson carbon residue, max. 3.0
Sulphur, max. (% mass) 2
Vanadium, max. PPM 100
Sodium, max. 0
Ash, max. (% mass) 0.05
Water, max (% Vol.) 0.30
Water before engine, max (% Vol.) 0.
Asphaltenes, max. -
Flash point, closed pesky-Martens, min (oC) 60
Pour point, upper max. (oC) 6
Aluminum + silicon max. (mg/kg) 25
HEAVY FUEL OIL (HFO)
Viscosity, max. (cSt at 100 oC) 5
Density, max. (at 15oC) (cSt at 50 oC) 730
Conradson carbon residue, max. (g/ml) 1.010
Sulphur, max. (% mass) 22
Vanadium, max. (% mass) 2.0
Sodium, max. (mg/kg) 100
Ash, max. (mg/kg) 20)
Water, max. (% mass) 0.05
Water before engine, max. (% Vol.) 1
Asphaltenes, max. (% Vol.) 0.3
Aluminum + silicon max. (% mass) 14
Flash point, closed Pensky-Martens, min (mg/kg) 80
Pour point, upper max. (oC) 60
CCAI-number, max. (oC) 30
) The maximum sodium content is related to the actual vanadium content in the fuel.
Page 13 (38)
LUBRICATING OIL
Only lubricants that are approved by Wartsila Diesel Oy are allowed to be used. The
properties of used lubricating oil must stay within limits given below. More detailed
information is available in the engine manuals.
Viscosity, SAE 30, max. 140 cSt at 40oC
max. 15 cSt at 100 oC
SAE 40, max. 212 cSt at 40 oC
Max. 19 cSt at 100 oC
Flash point, open cup, min. -50 oC from nominal value
min 170 oC
Water, max. 0.5 %
BN 15-40 )
Insolubles, max. 2 %
) Required alkalinity is depending on the used fuel oil.
ENGINE COOLING WATER
Corrosion inhibiting additives must be used in the engine cooling water. Only additives
of the brand and types approved by Wartsila Diesel are allowed to be used. The additive
manufacturer’s dosage, pH, and testing recommendations shall be followed.
If a nitrite based corrosion inhibitor is used, the aim should be to keep a nitrite (NO2)
content of about 1500 mg/l, calculated as nitrite. The pH shall be between 8.5 and 9.5.
In emergency cases the cooling water can be treated by addition of 5 kg/m3 sodium nitrite
(NaNO2). To obtain a pH of about 9, add diluted caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH)
if necessary.
Page 14 (38)
Limits for engine cooling (primary circuit), turbine washing, and separator operating water:
pH at 25oC >7
Conductivity at 25 oC (mS/m) <10000
Total hardness Ca2+ + mg2+ (odH) 2-10
Silica as SiO2, (mg/l) <50
Chlorides Cl-, (mg/l) <60
Sulphates as SO4
2-, (mg/l) <150
General appearance clear, colourless, free of undissolved materials
For cooling tower and heat exchangers (secondary circuit), values are like above, but
Chlorides Cl- should be 150-300 mg/l. If chlorides are above 300 mg/l – titan heat
exchangers to be used.
CHARGE AIR
- biggest permissible particle size at turbocharger inlet is 5 ìm.
- Recommended grade of filtration is Grade B (<5 mg/m3).
- The highest allowed particle concentration at turbocharger inlet is:
» Cement dust 10.0 mg/Nm3
» Calcium hydroxide 5.0 mg/Nm3
» Chlorine 1.5 mg/ Nm3
» Sulphur dioxides (SO2) 20.0 mg/ Nm3
Page 15 (38)
A.1.2 GENERATOR
3 Self-cooled 3-phase brushless, salient pole type, synchronous generator(s)
Nominal output 7875 kVa
Power factor 0.8
Voltage 6900 V, adjustment range ± 5%
Current, In 658 A
Frequency 60 Hz
Speed 720 Rpm
Runaway speed 864 Rpm
Efficiency at rated output, voltage and p.f. 0.8: 96.4%
Continuous short circuit current About 3 x In
Insulation class / temperature rise F/F
Enclosure IP21
Standard IEC34
Shaft and bearing
The generator is horizontally mounted and provided with two bearings.
Cooling
The generator is self cooled with a shaft mounted fan which takes the cooling air from the
engine room and blows it through the generator.
Terminals
The six stator winding ends are brought to the terminal boxes on the generator sides.
Damper winding
The generator is provided with a damper winding for parallel operation with each other and
with separate grid.
Brushless excitation system
An exciter mounted in the generator supplies the excitation power for the brushless main
machine through a diode bridge. The control power for the exciter is supplied through an
automatic Voltage Regulator.
Page 16 (38)
Automatic voltage regulator
The voltage regulator will be a completely solid state type for control of generator voltage
by means of controlling the exciter field. The regulator will control the generator exciter
field as required to maintain a constant and stable generator output voltage within +/- 0.5%
of nominal for all generator steady state loads from no load to full load including a 5%
variation in frequency and the effects of field heating.
The regulator will have the capacity to adjust the generator output voltage between a
minimum of 95% of nominal volts (open circuit) and a maximum of 105% of nominal (full
load).
Accessories
- 6PT-100 elements in stator winding
- PT-100 element for bearing
- Anti condensation heater
- Automatic voltage regulator
- Current transformer for AVR
Page 17 (38)
A.1.3 COMMON BASE FRAME
3 Common base frame(s) of steel plates for the engine and the generator
A.1.4 ELASTIC MOUNTING
3 Sets of steel spring eleme nts for flexible mounting of the DG-set onto the foundation
block
A.1.5 COUPLING
3 Flexible coupling(s) between engine and generator shaft
3 Flywheel cover(s) for the flywheel and the flexible coupling
A.1.6 FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS
3 Set(s) of flexible hoses and bellows for connection of the engine to external piping
systems
Page 18 (38)
A.2 MECHANICAL AUXILIARY SYSTEM
The proper function of the DG-set is dependent on the mechanical auxiliary systems. The
proposed systems have been optimized for the particular plant. The function of the
systems are to provide the engine with fuel oil, lubricating oil, starting air, cooling water
and charge air at required quantity and quality as well as to dispose of exhaust gases in a
proper manner.
A.2.1 FUEL SYSTEM
The main function of fuel oil system is to provide the engine with fuel oil of correct flow,
pressure, viscosity and degree of purity. The power plant is designed for using Heavy
Fuel Oil as the main fuel. Light Fuel Oil is used as a back-up fuel.
A.2.1.1 LIGHT FUEL OIL (LFO) SYSTEM
Light Fuel Oil System is used in case of operation disturbances and flushing of the system
before maintenance work, before longer stoppages and during start up when the HFO
system is not heated to operation temperature.
Storage, settling and day tank to be supplied by the purchaser.
1 Set of equipment for day tank including
- - level switches or indicators and alarms for high and low fuel level.
Page 19 (38)
A.2.1.2 HEAVY FUEL OIL (HFO) SYSTEM
The Heavy Fuel Oil System is the main fuel oil system. The engine can be started and
stopped at heavy fuel, provided that operation temperature is maintained. The system is
designed for a fuel viscosity of 424 cSt/50oC and consists of the following equipment:
Storage, settling and day tank to be supplied by the purchaser.
1 Transfer pump unit
The function of the transfer pump unit is to pump fuel oil from the storage tanks to the
buffer tank. Transfer pumps and other components are built on a steel frame, which
forms one compact unit.
1 Separator unit(s) including
Centrifugal separators are installed to remove fuel contamination that are harmful to the
diesel engine. Both water and solid can be effectively removed. Before entering the day
tank the heavy fuel oil is purified by a centrifuge separator.
2 HFO Feeder / Booster unit(s)
The function of the fuel feed system is to supply the engine(s) with cleaned fuel of the
required flow, pressure and viscosity. The main components are the feeder pumps, the
booster pumps and the heater. The feeder pump supplies the correct flow of fuel from
day tank to the booster pump, booster pump rises the pressure and flow to the required
level. The heater maintains a temperature corresponding to an injection viscosity of
16-24 cSt.
3 Pump and filter unit(s)
The pump and filter unit are located between the booster and the engine. The unit is
protecting the engine by a last filtration. The pump provides the engine with the right
fuel quantity and pressure in installations were the booster unit is serving more than one
engine.
1 Return fuel oil unit(s)
The clean leak fuel is drained to the return fuel tank, and further pumped to the buffer tank.
2 sets of equipment for setting and day tank including
- level switches or indicators and alarms for high and low fuel level.
Note:
The heavy fuel oil outlet temperature from the storage tank have to be 50oC, or 10oC above
pour point.
Page 20 (38)
A.2.2 LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
Lubrication oil system provides required lubrication for all moving parts on the engine. It
consists of engine related lubrication system and plant lubrication oil system, which serves
the whole power plants operation.
A.2.2.1 ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
The lubricating oil is pumped from the oil sump by the main lube oil pump. The total
lube oil flow is cleaned in the fine filter and 2…3% of it passes through the centrifugal oil
filter. Before reaching the engine the lube oil enters the lube oil heat exchanger cooled by
the LT cooling water. The temperature of the lube oil is regulated by a three-way
thermostatic valve.
From the oil sump the lube oil is continuously pumped by the pump built on the separator
unit to the separator where water and solids are separated from the lube oil, and the cleaned
oil is returned back to the oil sump.
3 Lube oil separator unit(s)
The separators are dimensioned for continuous separation. Each engine has its own
separator unit.
3 Lube oil cooler(s)
The lubricating oil heats during operation and must therefore be cooled. In full load the
temperature rises up to 75-80oC. Lube oil cooler is plate heat exchanger type cooler.
3 Pre lube oil pump(s)
Before the engine is started the complete oil system must be filled and the engine
adequately primed by the prelubricating pump. The prelubricating pump is an electrically
driven pump equipped with a built-on overflow.
3 Find filter(s), fineness 0.015 mm
The fine filter unit consists of four filter chambers of full flow type. Normally all filters
are in use but during operation one filter at a time can be closed off and cartridges and be
changed. The fine filter unit(s) includes also differential pressure indicator(s).
3 Thermostatic three-way valves
The thermostatic valve has to mix warm and cold lubricating oil to obtain the right
temperature before entering the engine.
Page 21 (38)
A.2.3 COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
Compressed air is needed in the power plant for starting of the engines, as control &
instrumentation air and also as working air for tools, blow guns etc. The required amount
of air is produced in the starting air unit and in the control & instrumentation air unit.
The two air systems can be interconnected so that the starting air unit, in case of failure in
the control & instrumentation air unit, can deliver air also to control and instrumentation
equipment.
A.2.3.1 STARTING AIR SYSTEM
The starting air is produced by the two starting air compressors on the starting air unit.
The 30 bar air coming from the starting air unit is stored in starting air bottle(s) unit it is
used for starting the engine(s). The power plant starting air system consists of the
following main equipment:
1 Starting air unit(s)
3 Air bottles, 500 l, 30 bar, equipped with all necessary accessories.
European pressure vessel inspection certificates will be given to the purchaser.
A.2.3.2 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION AIR SYSTEM
The control and instrumentation air is produced by the compressor of the control &
instrumentation air unit. The compressed air is stored in the built-on air bottle unit it is
distributed to the different consumers. The power plant control and instrumentation air
system consists of the following main equipment.
Page 22 (38)
A.2.4 COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling as well as lubricating system is vital part to enable reliable and continuous power
plant operation. Cooling system consists of primary circuit (engine cooling system, water
flow through the engine) and secondary circuit where water is not directly connected to the
engine, but via heat exchangers. In case of radiator cooling, there is not need to have two
separate systems, but only primary cooling circuit exists.
A.2.4.1 ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
The engine itself is cooled by two separate water circuits. The high temperature circuit
(HT) is cooling charge air (in case two stage charge air cooler is used), cylinder heads and
cylinder liners. The low temperature circuit (LT) is cooling the charge air and lubricating
oil. Both circuits are connected to a heat exchanger which is cooled by cooling tower.
3 Open type expansion vessel(s) for HT/LT cooling water circuit
Including level indicator(s) and alarm(s) on the tank(s) for low water level.
3 Common central cooler(s)
The central cooler is of plate heat exchanger type. The heat exchanger is common for
both LT- and HT- water circuit. Via the central, cooler heat is transferred from engine
cooling system to secondary cooling system.
3 Preheating unit(s)
Water in the HT-circuit has to be preheated before start of the engine. A heater circuit
with a pump and heater is connected before the engine. The preheating circuit is provided
with a non-return valve to force water to flow in the right direction.
6 Thermostatic three-way valve(s)
The thermostatic valve for LT/HT circuit controls the outlet temperature of the water and
they are direct acting type. If operating temperature of the engine is too low, cooling
water is bypassed back to engine.
Page 23 (38)
A.2.4.2 SECONDARY COOLING SYSTEM
Secondary cooling system provides equipment for engine secondary water circulation
cooling. Equipment in secondary side can be connected to several engines and that’s why
this system is also called as common or plant cooling system.
3 Cooling towar(s) (Purchaser’ supply)
The function of the cooling tower is based on evaporation heat. The hot water is cooled
by the upward airflow and pumped back to the heat exchangers from the cooling tower
basin.
Preliminary data, each engine:
Capacity 4900 kW
Outlet temperature 32oC
Flow 288 m3/h
3 Cooling tower pump(s) (Purchaser’ supply)
Pump Capacity 288 m3/h 2.5 bar
1 Maintenance water tank with an electrical motor driven discharge pump
The engine cooling water can be quickly drained to the tank in case of maintenance.
Treated cooling water can thus be pumped back into the engine and reused after
maintenance. Water tank with a pump is common for several engines.
Page 24 (38)
A.2.5 CHARGE AIR SYSTEM
3 Set(s) of dry type, intake air filter(s)
The dry type filter is provided with a vertical weather louver and 1-stage glass fibre filter.
3 Set(s) of intake air silencer(s)
The noise attenuation of the silencer is 9-30 dB(A) (125-8000 Hz)
3 Set(s) of expansion bellows for intake air pipes
A.2.6 EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM
3 Exhaust gas silencer(s)
The absorption type silencer is equipped with a spark arrester. It is also provided with a
soot collector and water drain. The silencer can be mounted horizontally or vertically and
the noise attenuation is 35 dB(A).
3 Set(s) of expansion bellows for exhaust pipe
Page 25 (38)
A.3 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
A.3.1 MAIN SWITCHGEAR
Main switchgear contains air insulated, metal enclosed and withdrawable circuit breakers.
Single busbar is provided with IP3x exterior and IP2x interior enclosure, fulfilling relevant
IEC 298 and IEC 694 standards.
Generated electrical power is transferred to the consumers via main switchgear.
Switchgear is dimensioned to withstand electrical power characters as stated below.
Rated voltage 7.2 kV
Rated current for busbars 2000 kA
Rated short circuit strength Ith/1s 25 kA
The main switchgear circuit breakers are equipped with auxiliary contacts, charging motors,
closing and shunt tripping coils. Current and voltage transformers have a rated burden to
suit with connected measuring and protection devices. Accuracy class for protection
transformers is 10P10 and for measuring transformers cl. 0.5.
THE MAIN SWITCHGEAR CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING EQUIPMENT
3 Generator cubicle(s), rated current 1200 A
Apparatus of main circuit: Apparatus of secondary circuit:
1 SF6 or vacuum circuit-breaker
3 Current transformers
2 Voltage transformers
1 Earthing switch
1 Cable transformer for earth fault
3 Ammeters
1 Miniature circuit-breaker
1 Breaker control switch
1 Auxiliary relay
2 Neutral earthing cubicle(s)
1 Neutral grounding resistor 400A
1 Disconnector
1 Current transformer (single phase)
1 Busbar tie breaker cubicle(s), rated current 2000 A
1 Bus coupler SF6 breaker
3 Current transformers
Page 26 (38)
2 Outgoing cubicle(s), rated current 3150 A
Apparatus of main circuit:
Apparatus of main circuit: Apparatus of secondary circuit:
1 SF6 or vacuum circuit-breaker
3 Current transformers
2 Voltage transformers
1 Earthing switch
1 Earth fault relay
1 Voltmeter + selector switch
1 3-phase independent time-lag
overcurrent relay and short circuit
protection relay
3 Ammeters
1 Miniature circuit-breaker
1 Breaker control switch
1 Auxiliary relay
1 Station transformer cubicle, rated current 630 A
Apparatus of main circuit: Apparatus of secondary circuit:
1 Circuit breaker or fuse load
breaker with tripping coil
3 Current transformers
1 Earthing switch
1 3-phase independent time-lag
overcurrent relay and
short circuit protection relay
1 Earth fault relay
1 Breaker control switch
1 Tripping coil
2 Busbar measuring equipment
3 Voltage transformers
3 Lightning arresters (one per phase)
1 Under frequency protection
1 Under voltage protection
Page 27 (38)
A.3.2 STATION SERVICE SYSTEM
Station service system is a common name for equipment to generate and distribute low
voltage electricity for power station electrical consumers and to enable auxiliaries
continuous and reliable operation. The system is connected to the main switchgear via
high voltage cables and station circuit breaker.
1 Station low voltage switchgear (auxiliary services)
Steel-sheet enclosed cubicle-type switchgear including supplies for the station motors and
other apparatuses of the power plant. External protection class of the low voltage
switchgear is IP3x.
The switchgear consists of the following equipment:
Incoming feeder(s) with
1 Main switch
1 Voltage meter with selector switch
3 Ammeters
Fused outgoing feeders for local control panels
Motor starters direct on line for supplied electrical motor
Starters contain:
- MCB or MCCB breakers
- Contactor
- Thermal overload relay
- Control switch
- Signal lamps for motor run and fault
- Terminal blocks
3 Local control panel(s)
The local control panel is used to control the engine mounted electrical motors and heaters
of the DG-set. It is also equipped with indicating lamps and an alarm panel. It should
be placed close to the DG-set. Panel controls following motors and heaters:
- Generator anticondensation heaters
- Prelube oil pump
- Fuel booster pump
- Turning gear motor
- Preheating circulating pump
- High temperature cooling circuit preheaters
- Air filters (if motorized)
- Outlet socket 16A
Page 28 (38)
A.3.3 DC SYSTEM
The DC-system is a system of its own in the power plant. It feeds DC-power to the
control panels in the control room (panels including start/stop automation, synchronization,
generator protection and the alarm annunciation of the power plant).
The power plant is equipped with DC-system to ensure a safe operation and the power
plant is not dependent of the AC auxiliary voltage to ensure a safe shut-down in case of
failure in the auxiliary voltage supply.
Combined DC supply unit consists of Battery, Battery Charger, DC distribution and DC
supervision.
1 Battery
Type Lead Acid
Size 75 Ah/10h
Voltage (DC) 110 V
2 Charger(s)
Charging current 12 A
1 Steel sheet enclosed distribution switchgear board
- Battery main switch
- LCD display in the door of the system panel to measure output and setting
variables (voltage and current) and indication of alarm status
- 10 pcs 20A MCBs spare feeders
Page 29 (38)
A.4 AUTOMATION, MONITORING AND SUPERVISION
A.4.1 CONTROL AND AUTOMATION SYSTEM
General
The control and automation systems are designed for safe, reliable, efficient and easy
operation of the power plant. The system consists of DG-set and auxiliary controls,
operator’s and process stations, engine and field instrumentation and data transmission
system. Engine output and speed of rotation are controlled by speed control, which is
designed to operate in speed droop control and base load control (kW-control). Generator
reactive power and line voltage are controlled by automatic voltage regulator (AVR),
which is designed to operate in voltage droop control and power factor control.
Central panel and an operator’s station are located in the control room and engine local
panel is placed close to the engine and auxiliary local panels are attached to respective
units.
An engine is started, stopped and controlled with push buttons and switches at the central
control panel in the control room. The operator can select either manual or automatic
operating mode for the DG-set thus enabling flexible control over the DG-set. Normally
the auxiliary systems are designed to operate automatically using level and pressure
switches etc., but starting up and shutting down of auxiliary processes requires manual
operator control at local control panels.
The operators will be able to monitor essential power plant functions at the operator’s
station. The system uses PLC logic and conventional relay techniques to derive
information from engine and field instrumentation. The information is collected by
enginewise process stations and one power plant common process station and then passed
on the operator’s station via a control network level us.
Panes are steel enclosed cubicle type panels with enclosure class IP2x and they are
intended for indoor mounting.
Equipment is named and coded according to Wartsila Diesel coding of equipment in power
plants.
Central control panel – common section
The common section contains power plant control functions. It contains the common
PLC system, the synchronizing equipment, the powerstation mimic and an alarm
annunciation unit.
The synchronizing meters include a double voltage meter, a double frequency meter and a
synchroscope with a synch check relay. Switches for synchronizing mode selection,
speed/frequency increase/decrease control and voltage increase/decrease control are
included as well as a push buttons for breaker close control. An autosynchroniser
performs the synchronizing in automatic mode, but the operator has the possibility to
synchronize breakers manually.
Page 30 (38)
The mimic contains the power station bus and position indicators for generator breakers
and synchronisable breakers with synchronizing order push buttons.
The common section is typically located at the left end of the central control panel facing
the front.
Central control panel – enginewise section
Each engine has one enginewise section in the central control panel. This section
contains essential meters, control and operation switches and protection relays for the
DG-set.
The meters include three ammeters, one voltage meter with a selector switch for selecting
any of the three line-to-line voltages, an active power meter with energy metering, a
reactive power meter, a power factor meter, a frequency meter, a speedometer with a
selector switch for selecting the engine speed or turbocharger speed for display and a
running hour meter.
The control switches include a master switch for selecting manual or automatic operating
mode and manual operation switches (engine and generator control mode switches,
increase/decrease controls and synchronizing selection). It also contains push buttons for
starting and stopping, breaker open and close control as well as breaker trip and engine
shutdown reset.
The protection relays include functions for reverse power, overvoltage, overcurrent and
ground fault protection. Generator differential overcurrent and loss of excitation
protections complete the protection scheme (As standard only when S>5MVA).
Local control panels
The local control panels are used for controlling the auxiliary systems and are factory
installed to the respective units. They include control switches, push buttons and
indicator lights for the local supervision and control of the auxiliary systems. They give
more detail information about the specific part of the plant and allow the control of the
auxiliary unit.
Operator’s station
The operator’s station is used for monitoring the power plant. It reads information from
process stations with a bus operating at control network level and visualizes the
information in easy-to-read displays on the PC monitor. The operator’s station also
includes the alarm listing and printing, reporting and trending. The extended automation
system includes one operator’s station with facilities for further expand.
The operator’s station is based on a PC based SCADA software running in Microsoft
Windows NT or 3.11 Windows for Workgroups. The operator station includes a large
monitor, one matrix type printer for alarm printing, one black & white printer for reporting
and one colour printer for trend display screen prints. The electricity to operator’s station
hardware is supplied from an uninterruptible power supply.
Page 31 (38)
Information from the process stations is arranged into groups which are displayed as pages
on the monitor. Enginewise displays include individual pages for the engine fuel system,
the engine lubrication oil system, the engine starting air system, the engine cooling system,
bearing and exhaust gas temperatures and a DG set overview display. The power plant
common system displays are formed based on project related equipment, however typically
the displays include the power plant fuel system, starting air system and an electrical single
line diagram.
The operator’s station stores data from all analogue monitoring points to hard disk. This
information can be called up in the historical trends displays. The trend displays are
scaled to show information from one minute up to one week back.
The operator’s station reporting system includes the following reports; Plant and engine
daily to operation data (optionally shift report), consumption and production reports (day,
month, year and multi-year reports, optionally week and shift reports), duration curve for
engine load and fault code registration.
Process stations
The automation system includes one process station for each engine, which is referred as
the enginewise process station. This process station monitors the engine with the engine
instrumentation and performs alarm and shutdown functions which are needed for safe
operation of the engine. It also performs the engine automatic operation sequences such
as the starting and the stopping sequences as well as contains the automatic load limiter
based on ISO guidelines. The enginewise process station is typically located in the
engine local panel and it is connected to the operator’s station at control network level in
order to provide the operators an easy method for monitoring the engine operation. The
enginewise process station is designed to operate independently of other process stations in
order to maximize the reliability.
The automation system also includes one process station for monitoring the power plant
common functions such as the fuel system or the starting air system. This station is
referred as the power plant common process station. It is normally located in the central
control panel/common section and it is connected to the operator’s station at the control
network level.
Engine instrumentation
The engine instrumentation is connected to the local control panels and monitored in the
control room by operator station. The engine instrumentation includes analogue
temperature and pressure sensors and switches for alarm information and stop orders.
Alarms, stop orders and measurements (indicating the actual value) are described in list
below.
Shutdowns:
- low lubricating oil pressure (digital)
- high HT-water temperature after engine (digital)
- high exhaust gas temperature after cylinder (analogue)
- high charge air temperature (digital)
- overspeed (digital)
- high main bearing temperature (analogue)
Page 32 (38)
Alarm signals:
- low fuel oil pressure (analogue)
- fuel leakage inside hot box (digital)
- low fuel oil inlet temperature (analogue)
- low lubricating oil pressure before engine (analogue)
- high lubricating oil inlet temperature (analogue)
- high differential pressure across lubricating oil filter (analogue)
- low lubricating oil level in oil sump (digital)
- low starting air pressure (analogue)
- high HT-water temperature after engine (analogue)
- low HT-water pressure (analogue)
- low LT-water temperature (analogue)
- high LT-water temperature before engine (analogue)
- high exhaust gas temperature after cylinder (analogue)
- high exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger (analogue)
- overspeed (digital)
- high main bearing temperature (analogue)
- turning gear engaged (digital)
Measuring:
- fuel oil pressure
- fuel oil inlet temperature
- lubricating oil pressure before engine
- lubricating oil inlet temperature
- lubricating oil temperature after engine
- pressure across lubricating oil filter
- starting air pressure
- HT-water temperature before engine
- HT-water temperature after engine
- HT-water pressure
- LT-water temperature before engine
- LT-water temperature after engine
- charge air pressure after compressor
- exhaust gas temperature after each cylinder
- exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger
- main bearing temperature
The instrumentation also contains local meters to indicate temperature and pressure values
locally.
Local meters:
- fuel oil pressure
- fuel oil temperature
- lubrication oil pressure before engine
- lubricating oil temperature before engine
- starting air pressure
- HT-water pressure
- LT-water pressure
- HT-water temperature before engine
- HT-water temperature after engine
- HT-water temperature after turbocharger
- LT-water temperature before charge air cooler
Page 33 (38)
- LT-water temperature after charge air cooler
- Charge air pressure
- Temperature inside air receiver
Field instrumentation
The field instrumentation includes switches, analogue sensors and local meters. The
important status information and analogue measuring results are transferred to the control
room and monitored by the operator’s station. The tank level alarms, common alarms for
HFO separator unit and booster unit, high differential pressures in lube oil and safety filter
and return fuel oil pump start/stop indications are presented in the operator’s station.
More detail status information is shown in the local control panels. Analogue information
is available about the tank levels and the fuel viscosity.
The field instrumentation includes also local meters to show pressure, temperature and
level values locally beside the measuring point. Description of them is presented in
context of each unit or equipment.
Page 34 (38)
A.5 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
A.5.1 STEAM GENERATION
The exhaust gas boilers are of water tube with forced circulation through the evaporator
unit. The water circulation is maintained by circulation pumps. The steam is separated
from the water in the steam drum. The drum is common for several boilers. A non-return
valve on the steam outlet from the drum prevents back flow when the boiler is not in use.
The water level in the steam drum is controlled by a modulating control valve regulating
the water flow coming from the feed water pump.
When operating on HFO, additional steam generation is needed to provide steam in cases
when the engine(s) are not running and thus the exhaust gas boilers do not generate steam.
3 Exhaust gas boiler(s)
Water flows inside the tubes and the exhaust gas flow in the common boiler space.
Boiler equipment:
- Evaporator unit
- Inlet and outlet hoods with inspection covers
- By-pass damper
- Soot blowing equipment (manual)
- Standard assortment of valves
- Blow down drain
- Safety valves, relief valves, and fitting
- Insulation and cladding
- Counter flanges, bolts, nuts, and gaskets
- Mounting pads or supports
Capacity at boiler outlet: (sit conditions as specified in A. 0.2, 100% engine load)
Steam generation 2.8 t/h at 184.1°C
Steam pressure (saturated) 11 bar(a)
Recovered heat with a feed
water temp. of 90°C 1981 kW
Page 35 (38)
1 Steam drum
The steam drum is equipped with built-in water/steam separation. The water level in the
drum is controlled by a level controller connected to a control valve in the feed water pipe.
The water is circulated from the steam drum through the evaporator section and back to
the steam drum by means of a centrifugal pump.
The steam drum includes:
- Non-return valve
- Blow down outlet
- Safety valves and control valve
- Insulation
- Standard instrumentation
Capacity of the steam drum
Working pressure 11 bar(s)
Steam flow 8.4 kg/h
2 Feed water pump(s)
Feed water will be pumped from the feed water tank to the boilers and deliver it at the
appropriate pressure.
1 Condensate return tank(s) with condensate pump
The condensate from the steam consumers will be collected in the condensate return tank
and then transported by the condensate pump to the feed water tank.
1 Steam heater
The steam header is used to collect the steam from all boilers and to feed it onwards to the
steam consuming devices.
1 Blow down tank(s)
A periodical blow down of the boiler water to be done to remove some futile compounds,
the concentration of which otherwise will build up and cause lower evaporation capacity
and increased corrosion. The blow down water is led to the blow down tank. The tank is
automatically cooled by water when needed.
1 Set(s) of chemical dosing equipment
In order to prevent corrosion and sediment certain chemicals has to be added to the feed
water.
1 control panel
Control panel has all necessary components for controlling and operating the steam
system, except the burner operation components that are installed in burner.
Page 36 (38)
3 Set counter flanges
For connecting the equipment to the piping system.
OPERATING WATER
A: Turbine cooling water, primary circuit
B: Cooling towers and heat exchangers, secondary circuit
C: Steam system, make up water
D: Steam system, boiler water
E: Hot water system, feed water
A B C D E
pH at 25°C >7 8.5-9.5 10.5-12 8.5-9.5
Conductivity at 25°C mS/m <1000 <1000
Total hardness Ca²+ +Mg²+ °dH 2-10 <10 <0.1 <0.5
Oxygen as O2 mg/l <0.01 <0.05
Carbon dioxide as fixed CO2 mg/l <25
Total iron Fe ²++ Fe ³+ mg/l <0.05 <0.05
Copper as Cu mg/l <0.01 <0.01
Silica as SiO2 mg/l <80 <60
Organic matter, KMnO4 cons mg/l <10 <300
Oil mg/l <1
Chlorides Cl¯ mg/l <80 150-300 <5 <300
Phosphates as PO4³- mg/l 10-20 15-30
Sulphates as SO4²- mg/l <150
Sodium as Na+ mg/l
General appearance clear, colourless, free of undissolved materials
Note: valves are valid only for saturated stem systems with working pressure below 22 bar(a)
the maximum allowable SiO2 content is pressure dependent
with acid proof heat exchanger, if chlorides are above 300mg/l – titan heat exchanger is
needed
Page 37 (38)
A.6 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM
A.6.1 SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (De-NOx) system
The equipment used for reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is based on Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR). In SCR process, nitrogen oxides are reduced by injection of ammonia
mainly to nitrogen (N2, the major component of air) and water (H2O). The NOx valve after
the De-NOx system is 235 ppm-v (dry, 13 vol. -%O2) at 100% engine load. Site conditions
as specified in chapter A.0.2.
Aqueous ammonia (25 weight- % NH3) is used as a reduction agent.
The system includes:
3 SCR-catalyst reactors
- Reactor housing without insulation
- Catalyst elements
- Standard instrumentation
- Manual sootblowing system
3 Ammonia water injection equipment
- Injection nozzle
- Injection piping
- Valves, flanges
1 Ammonia water feeding pump units
- Ammonia metering pump
- Set of valves and instrumentation
- On skid piping
3 Control panels
1 Emission monitoring system
The system measures NO and calculates the total NOx emissions in ppm at reference
oxygen content.
Page 38 (38)
A.7 TOOLS
1 Set of maintenance tools for engine
1 Set of maintenance tools for special operations
1 Set of general tools
1 Set of maintenance tools for turbocharger



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